Cephalopod Farming

@FatFish, these primarily come from our daily News bot (octobot) finds or my own Google Scholar results so they are as up to date as I can make them. Everyone is encouraged to add to the list of finds. Sadly most of them are behind subscription walls but many of our academics do have access.
Large-scale octopus farming could be three years away
Under Current News June 26, 2014 Alicia Villegas

The key to succeed in commercial aquaculture production is to achieve full cultivation across the octopus’ life cycle. The research institute is focusing on this now — in fact they managed to complete full cultivation across the life cycle of several octopuses for the first time ever in 2001.
This was achieved after using live crustacean zoeae — larvae — as single or complementary prey, but it is very difficult to obtain them in large quantities. “To produce at large scale, that would be very expensive, so our focus is now to analyze the crustacean larvae so our farmed crustacean artemia has the same composition,” Iglesias said.
The new focus will be key for commercial octopus production. ...
Productive performance of juvenile Patagonian red octopus (Enteroctopus megalocyathus) fed with fresh preys: are relevant the quantity of protein and energy on diets? - Chile

Another study to find appropriate food to cheaply farm octopuses

This study was conducted to investigate if the productive performance of Patagonian red octopus (Enteroctopus megalocyathus) is related to the quantitative contents of protein and energy of fresh diets based in marine preys. Six diets with P/E ratios of 35 (100% crab = C100), 41 (100% fish = F100), 44 (25% squid and 75% fish = S25:F75), 46 (50% squid and 50% fish = S50:F50), 48 (75% squid and 25% fish = S75:F25) and 51 (100% squid = S100) g protein MJ1 during 83 days were evaluated in octopuses weighing 297 ± 120 g. The growth and body biochemistry of the octopuses were not affected by the diets, however, food and lipid intake were affected, with crab diet obtaining the highest intake in both cases. The higher values of dry matter digestibility were achieved in S100 and S50:F50 diets, the highest protein digestibility was obtained with S100 and C100 diets, while the highest energy digestibility was achieved by diet S75:F25 and F100. Feed efficiency varied between the diets and protein/energy ratio alone explained 82.8% of the total variance. Besides, octopus fed F100 and C100 showed the highest body protein deposition. So, although it had no significant differences in growth and survival between the different diets, the feed efficiency and nitrogen deposition changed in relation with the protein/energy ratio of fresh diets. It is discussed that is possible to maintain growth of octopuses and to improve the feed efficiency and protein deposition parameters by optimizing the P/E values of diet.
Selection of marine species and meals for cephalopod feeding based on their essential mineral composition
J. Cerezo Valverde, A. Tomás Vidal, S. Martínez-Llorens, M.C. Pascual, J.I. Gairín, J. Estefanell, D. Garrido, J.F. Carrasco, F. Aguado-Giménez, B. García García 2014 (subscription)
A quantitative analysis of the essential mineral content (mg kg−1 dry weight) was carried out in 31 samples, including molluscs, crustaceans, fish and meals in an attempt to identify those most suitable for formulating cephalopod diets. The mineral ratios (MR: content in the test sample/content in whole Octopus vulgaris) were used as index of nutritional quality. Both crustaceans and oysters presented an optimal profile that covered the macro- and microelements composition of O. vulgaris. These samples differed from the rest by their higher Ca, Mg, B, Cu and Zn contents based on a principal component analysis. Fish were deficient in macroelements, such as Na (MR: 70–420 g kg−1) and Mg (MR: 220–690 g kg−1), but would be good source of K, Ca and P. Most fish were also deficient in Fe, Zn and Cu, although the copper content would be the most affected (MR: 3–130 g kg−1). Fish and krill meals showed a high content of Ca and P, although both would be deficient in Na (MR: 440–470 g kg−1) and Cu (130–540 g kg−1), along with K, Fe and Zn in krill and Mg and B in fish. Among the plant meals, sunflower and soybean were the most appropriate, presenting higher total content of minerals and MRs above 1000 g kg−1 for all minerals, except Na, Cu and Zn.
An insight on Octopus vulgaris paralarvae lipid requirements under rearing conditions
D.B. Reis, I. García-Herrero, R. Riera, B.C. Felipe, C. Rodríguez, A.V. Sykes, M.V. Martín, J.P. Andrade, E. Almansa 2014 (subscription)

In this study, two new alternative preys: Grapsus adscensionis zoeae (as sole prey) and Palaemon elegans zoeae (in cofeeding with Artemia sp.), as well as, Artemia sp. juveniles were used as feed for octopus paralarvae, as a way to understand its lipid requirements. Total lipid (TL) content, lipid class (LC) and fatty acid (FA) profiles of preys, octopus hatchlings and 9-day-old paralarvae were analysed. Growth and survival of the paralarvae were also determined. Regardless the prey provided, a notable shift in the lipid profile of paralarvae was registered after 9 days of rearing. The highest index of growth rate (IGR) recorded when decapod crustacean zoeae were supplied might have some relation with levels of 20:4n-6 (ARA) and DHA/EPA ratio observed. In this sense, Grapsus adscensionis zoeae leaded to a higher content of ARA and a lower content of EPA, which may indicate a possible competition between these two FA. For that a balanced EPA/ARA ratio might be significant in this species nutrition without disconsidering DHA levels as an essential fatty acid. Finally, the changes observed in paralarvae FA profile might not only be related to prey FA profile, but also with changes occurring in the lipid classes contents.
Effects of maternal diet on reproductive performance of O. maya and its consequences on biochemical characteristics of the yolk, morphology of embryos and hatchlings quality
Claudia Caamal-Monsreala, Maite Mascaróa, Pedro Gallardoa, Sergio Rodríguezb, Elsa Noreña-Barrosob, Pedro Dominguesc,
Carlos Rosasa 2015 (subscription)

This study examined the effects of mixed diets (with the crab Callinectes spp. as the main component of the diet) on embryonic development and hatchling quality of O. maya. Several O. maya females were fed one of 4 different diets being 1) crab, 2) crab and squid, 3) crab and mussel and 4) crab and fish heads, in a 7:3 ratio. The effects of each diet on the reproductive performance was evaluated by quantifying the total number of eggs female- 1, eggs clutch - 1, hatchlings female- 1, hatchling weight and hatchling quality, measured as the hatchlings survival after 10 d of fasting. In addition, the chemical characteristics of the diet were studied through determination of proximal analysis, amino acids and fatty acids profiles, its relation to the chemical characteristics of the yolk and the morphological characteristics of embryos. Results indicate that mixed diets delivered embryos with a combination of nutrients that promoted a better performance, compared to those from females fed crab exclusively. Females fed mixed diets apparently used energetic amino acids (AA) to synthesize yolk, which play essential roles in embryo metabolism. In addition, females fed mixed diets used saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids (FA) in the diet to provide yolk with a combination of FA that allowed hatchlings a better performance during the first days of culture. Mixed diets used in the present study could have the nutritional components to satisfy nutritional requirements for reproduction in this octopus species.
Food for hatchings - success with O. vulgaris

Performance of raw material thermal treatment on formulated feeds for common octopus (Octopus vulgaris) ongrowing
Tania Rodríguez-Gonzáleza,Jesús Cerezo Valverdea, António V. Sykesb, Benjamín García Garcíaa 2015 (subscription)

The common octopus (Octopus vulgaris) has aroused great interest in recent years as a new species for aquaculture. However, the inexistence of feeds with an adequate and balanced nutritional profile for all life stages has hampered O. vulgaris aquaculture development. In the present study, O. vulgaris juveniles were fed with one of two different diets, based on dried raw materials (22 % gelatine, 10 % egg yolk, 10 % Boops boops, 5 % Todarodes sagittatus, 5 % Carcinus mediterraneus, 2 % fish oil, 3 % glucose, 3 % starch and 40 % water) and differing only on bogue (B. boops) thermal processing (either freeze-dried - FDb or bogue meal prepared with temperature below 60 °C - Mb). Growth, feed efficiency, digestibility and condition were assessed after 56 days of rearing. Data were used to determine growth, weight gain (Wg), Absolute Growth Rate (AGR), Specific Growth Rate (SGR), Absolute Feeding Rate, Absolute Protein Feeding Rate (APFR), Absolute Lipid Feeding Rate (ALFR), Specific Feeding Rate (SFR), Feed Efficiency (FE), Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR), Protein Productive Value (PPV), Lipid Productive Value (LPV), Digestive Gland Index (DGI) and Apparent Digestibility Coefficients (ADC). Both diets were accepted, promoted growth and faeces production with 100% of survival. No significant differences were found in growth (SGR of 0.78 ± 0.19 %BW.day− 1 for FDb and 0.85 ± 0.09 %BW.day− 1 for Mb), feed efficiency (48.31 ± 9.70% and 39.22 ± 2.92% for FDb and Mb, respectively), PPV and LPV. Despite the similarity on FCR (P > 0.05), a higher ingestion were found on Mb group regarding to AFR (P < 0.01), APFR and ALFR (P < 0.01) and SFR (P < 0.05). In addition, the Mb octopi showed the highest DGI (6.75 ± 1.00%). Faeces proximate composition differed between groups in protein (P < 0.05), lipid (P < 0.05) and mineral content (P < 0.01) which were reflected in higher ADC for dry matter, protein and lipids in the Mb group (P < 0.01). Nonetheless, the proximate composition of tissues were similar between both groups (P > 0.05). The results revealed that dehydration of raw materials, performed under 60 °C (bogue-meal), had no effect on ingestion, digestibility, growth and survival when compared with the use of freeze-drying, which point out to the possible suitability of this thermal treatment for O. vulgaris feeds.
Breeding programme for endemic octopus advances

Little new news other than studying what effects the rise in temp will have on O. Maya farming.

For nine years, scientists at the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM) have been conducting research on the red octopus (Octopus maya) to explore the farming possibilities of this endemic species from Yucatan.

The idea behind this research project arose after the low production that took place in 2001, which caused serious social and economic problems among the fishermen of the region.

The studies are being carried out in the Multidisciplinary Teaching and Research Unit of the Faculty of Sciences of the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UMDI-UNAM Campus Sisal), with the support of the Secretariat of Agriculture, Livestock, Rural Development, Fisheries and Food (SAGARPA) and the National Commission of Aquaculture and Fisheries (CONAPESCA).

"We’ve opened the spectrum of projects to studying octopuses adaptations to changes in temperature in order to generate sufficient information to predict what would happen to this population if the temperature of the Yucatan Peninsula rose from 2° to 3° in the next 50-100 years as predictions about the consequences of climate change are warning," explains Carlos Rosas Vazquez, a member of the National Research System Level III
Effects of temperature on embryo development and metabolism of O. maya
Claudia Caamal-Monsreal, Iker Uriarte, Ana Farias, Fernando Díaz, Adolfo Sánchez, Denisse Re, Carlos Rosas
2015 (paper)

Temperature Octopus maya is one of the most promising candidates for octopus aquaculture due to its holobenthic development. The objectives of this study were to investigate: i) whether the time required for embryonic development of this species can be reduced; ii) whether high or low temperatures affect the size and physiological characteristics of embryos; iii) whether temperature affects the time taken to reach stage XX, using thermal time; and iv) the effects of incubation temperature on hatchling performance, measured as survival after 10 d fasting. Eggs were acclimated at 18, 22, 26 and 30 °C. Embryos incubated at 30 °C reached stage XX 50 d before embryos incubated at 18 °C. A mean value of 596 degrees day−1 was obtained for embryos incubated at 22 and 26 °C where embryo development was optimum. Principal component analysis showed that arm length was the morphological characteristic that separated embryos incubated at 22 °C from the rest of the treatments. Embryos in stage XIX and incubated at 26 °C had a higher metabolic rate than embryos maintained at other experimental temperatures. The best hatchling performance was obtained with embryos incubated at 22 °C. Results indicated that the optimal temperature for O. maya incubation is in the range of 22–26 °C. Statement of relevance: Octopus maya is one of the most promising species for octopus aquaculture due its holobenthic development. This study will be useful when design production facilities because it gives key information to obtain the hatchlings with the best performance.
Kanaloa Octopus Farm looking to rear cephalopods sustainably

By Chelsea Jensen West Hawaii Today [email protected]
KEAHOLE — A new venture looking to successfully rear octopus on land has set up shop at the Natural Energy Laboratory of Hawaii Authority.

“One of the animals that has been on the radar for aquaculture is octopus,” said Jake Conroy, CEO and president of Kanaloa Octopus Farms. “There’s a lot of potential for them and, hopefully, I can rear them and provide them to aquariums — I would love to be able to supply the markets with sustainable sources and hopefully move up to a scale to provide octopus for eating.”

Kanaloa Octopus Farm website
Meta-analysis approach to the effects of live prey on the growth of Octopus vulgaris paralarvae under culture conditions
Diego Garrido, Virginia M. Martín, Covadonga Rodríguez, José Iglesias, Juan C. Navarro, Alicia Estévez, Francisco Hontoria, Mikel Becerro, Juan J. Otero, Josu Pérez, Inmaculada Varó, Diana B. Reis,
Rodrigo Riera, António V. Sykes, Eduardo Almansa 2016 (subscription)

The common octopus (Octopus vulgaris, Cuvier 1797) is a promising species for aquaculture diversification, but the massive mortality during the first life stage is the main bottleneck for its commercial production. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of different live preys (Artemia and crustacean zoeae) and/or Artemia enrichment protocols in the paralarval growth by using a meta-analysis approach. A total of 26 independent assays were used, including data from the bibliography and from experiments carried out by our group. Three comparisons were established: (i) crustacean zoeae vs. Artemia, (ii) different crustacean zoeae species and (iii) Artemia enriched with marine lecithin (rich in polar lipids-PL and docosahexaenoic acid-DHA) vs. previously used Artemia enrichments. The meta-analysis approach allowed a quantitative review of independent studies with reliable conclusions, avoiding the subjectivity inherent to classical reviews. The outputs provided statistical confirmation of the better suitability of crustacean zoeae with respect to Artemia. However, not all crustacean species showed the same results, given that the high variability on Grapsus zoeae hampered finding significant differences with respect to the control treatment (Artemia). Nutrient composition and biometry of the different types of prey are discussed as possible causes of the differences arising from the meta-analysis. Finally, the present results suggest that marine lecithin has a beneficial effect on paralarval growth with respect to previously used enrichments, which could be related to the increase in DHA and PL in Artemia, given the essential role of these lipid components in octopus paralarval physiology.
Argentina (Octopus tehuelchus) - Auspicious beginning of octopus farming project

The Mariculture Experimental Station (EEM) of the National Institute for Fisheries Research and Development (Inidep), located in Mar del Plata, is conducting the first experiments with juvenile octopus (Octopus tehuelchus), in order to develop its farming.

The objective of this project is to obtain this year adult and juvenile specimens as well as eggs with embryos for acclimatization to captivity, observation and larval rearing. In this process, scientists have information support of researches of the same species carried out in the south of the country, in Puerto Madryn (Chubut).

The first octopuses were caught in their natural environment by Inidep staff. They were "a batch of five females which had laid their eggs in snails [shells]," said B. Mercedes Berrueta responsible for this experience within the Program of Experimental Biology and Mariculture (MARI) Inidep.

This species is found from the coast of southern Brazil to Puerto Madryn. It is an untapped fishery resource in Mar del Plata, which is removed as bycatch in shrimp and prawn fishing.

"In recent years there has been increased interest in various species of cephalopods as they have high nutritional value and lower fat content compared to fish, in addition to the rapid growth and high rates of feed conversion, making them attractive organisms for aquaculture," Berrueta stressed.

The researcher highlighted that to start with juveniles "is a challenge," since "the bottleneck of this farming has to do with their feeding."

For now, the first results obtained in the process of acclimatization to captivity have been good, so the prospects to start the study of the growth of the larvae in laboratory are promising.

Researchers already have an adult Octopus tehuelchus, which they are preparing since last July to be a breeding specimen. They are also trying to establish "optimal environmental and social parameters."

As part of this initial experimental phase, an agreement between Inidep and Universidad Austral de Chile (UACH) is about to be materialized, for the exchange of information and technologies related to the cultivation of cephalopods.
Cuttlefish (2016)
COA touts program for raising popular cuttlefish

It has become increasingly difficult for fishermen to catch pharaoh cuttlefish and bigfin reef squid due to overfishing and diminished habitats, with only about 1 percent of young cuttlefish and squid surviving in the wild, compared with 40 percent among those cultivated, Huang said.

“The most difficult part is taking care of infant cuttlefish and squid. They typically have to feed on live shrimps or fish until they are 20 days old, which is why cultivation was thought impractical and unprofitable. However, we have found a way to make 10-day-old cuttlefish and squid eat dead bait,” Huang said.

The Council of Agriculture (COA) said its Fisheries Research Institute has developed a way to raise pharaoh cuttlefish and bigfin reef squid in captivity — both commercially important species — in a bid to replenish fisheries resources and lower market prices.

Cephalopods, including squid and octopus, account for 14 percent of total fish catches worldwide, and that proportion is growing, institute Director-General Chen June-ru (陳君如) said, adding that Pharaoh cuttlefish and bigfin reef squid are the two most popular cephalopods among consumers, so the council determined to try and domesticate these two animals as part of its “blue economy” project.

Pharaoh cuttlefish and bigfin reef squid are high-value species and can be sold at more than NT$250 and NT$500 per kilogram respectively — five to 10 times the price of milkfish, which is often cultivated in Taiwan — and they can bear lower temperatures than milkfish, making them a more profitable option for fish farmers, Chen said.

“What we developed is the world’s first complete culture system for pharaoh cuttlefish and bigfin reef squids. Having a complete system means that we can grow pharaoh cuttlefish and bigfin reef squid in artificial environments without needing to harvest them in the sea; there probably will not be much fishing in the sea in the future,” Penghu Marine Biology Research Center researcher Huang Ting-shih (黃丁士) said.

It has become increasingly difficult for fishermen to catch pharaoh cuttlefish and bigfin reef squid due to overfishing and diminished habitats, with only about 1 percent of young cuttlefish and squid surviving in the wild, compared with 40 percent among those cultivated, Huang said.

“The most difficult part is taking care of infant cuttlefish and squid. They typically have to feed on live shrimps or fish until they are 20 days old, which is why cultivation was thought impractical and unprofitable. However, we have found a way to make 10-day-old cuttlefish and squid eat dead bait,” Huang said.

Cultivated pharaoh cuttlefish and bigfin reef squid might be available in two to three years at half the price of wild-caught specimens, he said, adding that the institute would teach fish farmers how to train baby cuttlefish and squids to eat commercial, non-live feed.

The institute also plans to release artificially grown cuttlefish and squid into the ocean to replenish the diminishing fisheries resources, with 15,000 cuttlefish and 2,000 squid to be released this year, Chen said.
Aquaculture of Octopus species: present status, problems and perspectives
Elisabeth Berger 2010 (pdf)
DWhatley - contains a table of tried foods and outcomes

Abstract The aquaculture of Octopus species is currently an active field of research around the world, but economic viability is not yet achieved. Here, the current state of knowledge with respect to Octopus water quality and nutritional requirements, reproduction, juvenile and adult stages in culture systems, which comes mainly from just one species, Octopus vulgaris (Cuvier, 1797), is reviewed. Some critical considerations are addressed and new research lines are proposed.

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