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Cephalopod Studies for Human Wellbeing

DWhatley

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More homeopathic than collection of large studies but interesting

Squid ink and its pharmacological activities
Jismi Jose, Krishnakumar K, Dineshkumar B

Abstract With the development of technical instruments the isolation and characterization of many natural products from marine and freshwater organisms, promotes a major advancement of discovery of these aquatic derived compounds. Due to the increasing demand of medicines from natural products, many researches on marine products are going on and is still a undiscovered journey. One such product is squid ink obtained from squid fish which is present in Mediterranean and Atlantic Ocean. It is mainly contained of melanin and many degradation studies have proven and still for the research work. The squid ink has spectacular activities in many ailments like uterine dysfunction, anticancer activity, antimicrobial activity, anti-inflammatory activity along with hypertensive effects. It has a very special place in homeopathic medicine and in traditional Chinese medicine due to its therapeutic uses. Hence it is believed that the squid ink can be used as a better tool against these dysfunctions. The present review aims to assemble various pharmacological activities of squid ink although deeper insight in its pharmacological potential is required.
 

DWhatley

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Quantitative Measurements of Octopus vulgaris Arms for Bioinspired Soft Robotics
Barbara Mazzolai, Laura Margheri, Cecilia Laschi 2019 (subscription)

Abstract
Bioinspiration is a popular trend in robotics research. Bioinspired design needs a deep knowledge of the selected biological model in order to extract the key features relevant to the design of the robot system. The octopus is an ideal model for soft robotics and has served as inspiration for the development of octopus-like robots and robot arms. The muscular hydrostat that composes the octopus arms is one of the key principles to imitate from the octopus, as well as the arm suckers. An engineering analysis and measurements is required, especially to understand the dimensions of deformations, the stiffness variability, the forces applied, the working principles of reaching and adhesion. We developed methods for measuring the octopus arm in vivo and we measured elongation and shortening, pulling force, stiffening, and morphology, quantitatively. The resulting data were used to create novel design principles and specifications used in developing new soft robots.
 

DWhatley

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Cuttlefish ink found promising for cancer treatment
by Lisa Zyga , Phys.org

Researchers have found that cuttlefish ink—a black suspension sprayed by cuttlefish to deter predators—contains nanoparticles that strongly inhibit the growth of cancerous tumors in mice. The nanoparticles consist mostly of melanin by weight, along with amino acids, monosaccharides (simple sugars), metals, and other compounds. The researchers showed that the nanoparticles modify the immune function in tumors, and when combined with irradiation, can almost completely inhibit tumor growth.
...
 

DWhatley

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Synthetic Squid Can Save You From Sunburn by Aria Bracci 2019

There’s nothing worse than a sunburn. Actually, there is—the potential damage that sunscreen can do to our bodies and the environment.

So would you try a natural alternative? While lots of products are labeled “organic,” a new method of concocting sunscreen gives a whole other meaning to “natural”: modeling it after the built-in UV protection in squid.
...
 

DWhatley

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Cytotoxic Effect of Ink Extracted from Cephalopoda on Cancer Cell Line
Israa H. Khudair, Balsam A. Hanna, Dhamia K. Sugar

ABSTRACT Objectives: The present study describes the biochemical, antioxidant and anticancer properties of the crude and melanin free ink of Sepia which is rich in both organic and inorganic components. Methods: The specimens of Sepia sp. were collected from Fao, South of Basrah /Iraq during November and December of 2018. They held the collected animals ventrally and squeezed the animal's posterior end to eject ink. The extracted ink samples both crude and melanin free ink were lyophilized, weighed and stored at 4°C until use .Then determination of the moisture, ash, total protein, lipid and carbohydrate in samples. The activity of ink as antioxidant was determination by the DPPH method. Finally, evaluation of anticancer activity by the MTT assay. Results: The quantitative analysis define the presence of protein (1.1 – 1.3 mg/ml), lipid (1.38 – 1.48 mg/ml), carbohydrates (0.01 –0.9mg/ml), ash (14and5%) and moisture (91.7-83.75 %) content.. The ink revealed good antioxidant activity, thereby lowering or retarding the initiation of lipid oxidation process. The ink was screened for its anticancer activity against human breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MCF 7) and it exhibited a strong cytotoxicity by inhibiting the cell growth. Conclusion: Thus the ink, especially the melanin free ink is known to possess significant potent antioxidant activity and anti-proliferative effect. The present study showed that the melanin free ink was richer in biochemical properties than the crude ink
 

tonmo

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DWhatley

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Genetically altered human cells can vary their transparency like squid
2020 Feature article in Life by Michael Le Page

Human cells genetically engineered to vary their transparency by making a squid protein could one day lead to see-through tissue.

In the short-term, the approach might help biologists get better images of living tissues under the microscope. In the longer term, it might be possible to make patches of tissue more or less transparent at will, or even to genetically engineer organisms that can control their transparency.

“That’s the crazy, far-out idea,” says Alon Gorodetsky at the University of California, Irvine. “But when you see squid doing it, then you think it’s not so far-out after all.”

Many cephalopods can not only change the colour of their skin, but also control their transparency. For instance, opalescent inshore squid (Doryteuthis opalescens) are largely transparent, but the white testis of males is visible inside their bodies. Females deter aggressive males by turning transparent tissue white to create a white stripe that resembles the male testis.
...
 

DWhatley

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Synaptic Actions of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis-Associated G85R-SOD1 in the Squid Giant Synapse
eNeuro Vol 7 Issue 2, March/April 2020 (full paper)
Abstract
Altered synaptic function is thought to play a role in many neurodegenerative diseases, but little is known about the underlying mechanisms for synaptic dysfunction. The squid giant synapse (SGS) is a classical model for studying synaptic electrophysiology and ultrastructure, as well as molecular mechanisms of neurotransmission. Here, we conduct a multidisciplinary study of synaptic actions of misfolded human G85R-SOD1 causing familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). G85R-SOD1, but not WT-SOD1, inhibited synaptic transmission, altered presynaptic ultrastructure, and reduced both the size of the readily releasable pool (RRP) of synaptic vesicles and mobility from the reserved pool (RP) to the RRP. Unexpectedly, intermittent high-frequency stimulation (iHFS) blocked inhibitory effects of G85R-SOD1 on synaptic transmission, suggesting aberrant Ca2+ signaling may underlie G85R-SOD1 toxicity. Ratiometric Ca2+ imaging showed significantly increased presynaptic Ca2+ induced by G85R-SOD1 that preceded synaptic dysfunction. Chelating Ca2+ using EGTA prevented synaptic inhibition by G85R-SOD1, confirming the role of aberrant Ca2+ in mediating G85R-SOD1 toxicity. These results extended earlier findings in mammalian motor neurons and advanced our understanding by providing possible molecular mechanisms and therapeutic targets for synaptic dysfunctions in ALS as well as a unique model for further studies.
Press releases can be found here: Squid studies suggest new route to therapy for ALS, targeting synaptic dysfunction
 

DWhatley

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